All Organic Recipes and Notes Compilation

Discussion in 'Growing Organic Marijuana' started by Sc00byD00bie, Sep 8, 2016.

  1. #1 Sc00byD00bie, Sep 8, 2016
    Last edited: May 15, 2020
    Howdy blades! :wave:

    As we all are aware there is a mountain of quality information on GCO like soil recipes, teas, IPM's and watering schedules, but a lot of it requires digging and searching across multiple threads for the most relevant and up to date information.
    so, since i have been abusing the new bookmarking feature to ehh..bookmark all the informative posts by the many blades here on GCO i decided to make this post to consolidate all the important information for anyone looking to start growing organically. if anyone has a good informative post i dont have here please post a link in a reply and i will add it in later.

    If you are new to organic gardening you will find most of the recipes and relevent information below. I would still urge you to at least skim some of the sticky threads here in the organic section, i know a lot of them are huge intimidating threads with thousands of posts, but most of the important information can be found in the first 20ish pages. specifically i would recommend you look at the following threads:

    No-Till Gardening: Revisited
    Easy Organic Soil Mix for Beginners
    No-Till Gardening (older thread some info was updated in the revisted version)
    GiMiKs Library of Organic Gardening PDF Files

    ...anyway, lets get down to it!


    No-Till Gardening: Revisited
    What this whole deal comes down to is building soil, caring for soil, harboring and encouraging the plethora of life within that soil so that it thrives, multiplies, meshes together and creates it's own unique and diverse mini-ecosystem! In a sense, you are thus emulating the greatest (and only) life giving process to have developed on this planet.

    An important aspect to keep in mind especially when wading through the hydro high times BS is that the soil you build is in constant motion and that motion only increases as time goes by, the process driven by this mass of (mostly) microscopic life is truly incredible! Mulching is something I would consider absolutely crucial in any no-till garden, this is what drives the process and what is the continual source of organic matter into your soil and the energy (food) source for soil life which in turn ends up in the plants you will grow. If any magic were to actually occur here it would certainly be happening in the upper most portion of your topsoil that is directly in contact with the mulch layer (ok maybe in the rhizosphere as well!). Planting a cover crop at the beginning of each cycle is always a good idea as well as the added roots throughout the topsoil also aerates and harbors soil life itself. Once and if the cover crop becomes established it then likely dies back under a full canopy (no light) and through it's death becomes mulch and is completely incorporated into the soil. A decaying mulch layer is key - a living mulch/cover crop comes second.

    Enzymes begin to break down your mulch/top-dress material converting it into a more 'basic' material to then be consumed by bacteria/fungi/actinomycetes - starches to sugars for example in the case of amylase, the sugar then being readily consumed by bacteria - arthropods such as springtails, millipedes, the infamous Roly poly / wood lice and a long list of soil mites along with yet more microbes also facilitate in the deconstruction of organic matter (your mulch layer) which is converted into what we know as humus. With fresh layers of humus on your topsoil (as mulch is continuously converted in a never ending process) it is now available for your worm community to come to the surface and consume. In the worms gut it is further broken down via an enzymaticaly driven process (including enzyme creating bacteria that reside in the gut of the worm to further move the process along). This deconstructed organic matter (humus) then passes through the worm and is deposited throughout your soil, providing for a constant source of aeration in the process. The worm castings left behind are now a humus which is perfectly compartmentalized with greater surface coverage allowing for an increase in further microbial activity. Nutrients are mineralized, stabilized and both made available to plants and stored away in organic compounds for the long haul (think "slow release" nutrients). PGR/PGH (Plant Growth Regulators & Hormones), enzymes & humates are all increased in quantity because of this natural process along with encouraging further diversity and activity in the microbial communities.

    So can you seen now the benefit of no-till when thinking of long term soil improvement, nutrient retention, microbial stimulation and an ideal medium for optimal plant growth? You see how the concept of feeding 'this or that' at a specific time in a plants life becomes mostly irrelevant? The sad concept of flushing proving utterly pointless and even detrimental? Can you see how the texture of soil is changed over time by these trillions of life forms and when left in place is thus structured to be the perfect communal home for roots & soil life alike? You see your soil is 100% alive and in constant motion, in a constant state of being deconstructed and reconstructed all in perfect form for plants to not just thrive but allowed to grow with the highest level of nutrition and medicinal content (secondary plant metabolites including cannabinoids, terpenes, terpenoids, ketones etc etc) - the plant of choice that you are growing being completely irrelevant.

    Keep in mind, if you build a soil that at least somewhat resembles the recipe above, the addition of worms (or not) at the beginning will not make one iota of difference. It is in the long term where the benefit of a diverse healthy soil life, including worms, that you will see a benefit…..and please please do not skimp on the humus portion of your soil mix, as my good friend Coot has said, “get your humus right, and the rest is like a pleasant drive through the countryside.” And I’m sure there’s a number of variations on that quote, some not as savory as others! LMAO!!


    No-Till soil mix:

    Mix Equal parts:
    CSPM (Canadian Sphagnum Peat Moss)
    Aeration (Pumice/Lava rock)
    Compost - Quality is key here.

    Amend per CFt with:
    1/2 - 1 cup Neem or Karanja meal
    1/2 - 1 cup Kelp meal
    1/2 - 1 cup Crab/Crustacean meal
    1 cup MBP (Malted Barley Powder)

    1/2 cup Gypsum (nice sulphur source)
    4-6 cups Rock Dust (Basalt is best but any will do)
    6-8 cups Biochar
    1 cup lime (oyster shell flower, dolomite...)

    ***Small handful of worms per container***

    Re-amending poor/old soil:

    If the last crop was to your liking, nothing needs to be done or added to your soil. If hesitant a great way to reuse existing soil and "beef" it up is to mix it 50/50 or even 75/25 with new soil.

    I often did something like this:

    2 parts "old" soil
    1part peat
    1/2 part lava rock
    1/2 part (vermi)compost -pre-amended


    Amending Bagged Soil Base:
    1/2 cup kelp
    1/2 cup neem
    1/2 cup crab meal (don't get hung up on this. Oyster shell powder of limestone, i.e.calcium carbonate is what you need. The chitin in the crab meal is easily replaced by the enzyme chitinase in the malted barley applications...
    2 cups basalt rock dust

    That's it. I do top-dress with malted barley powder every week and I water that in with BioAg Ful-Power (pure fulvic acid) @ 1 tablespoon (1/2 oz) per gallon of water. This will take care of any and all trace element issues.

    I water as needed and add 1 gram 200XX Aloe Vera powder each and every time.

    I'm shocked actually...
    AgnesDawgz, Apr 2, 2016


    What size pot do i need?

    A large bed would be the one to seriously consider and here are some books to explain why I say that...
    (pdf links)
    The Role of Root Exudates in Rhizosphere Interactions With Plants & Other Organisms
    Soil Microbiology, Ecology & Biochemistry
    Biostimulants: What They are and How They Work


    Peat moss Vs. Coir:

    The differences between CSPM vs. Coconut Coir. Besides the massive differences in microbiology right up front the limiting factor is the complete and total lack of Sulfur in coir irrespective of where it's grown, processed, etc.

    Since coir seems to be the medium of choice for many hydro growers (thought many are strident in their claims that coir is 'just like peat' which falls flat on its face when you look at the CoA) and the approach with hydroponics has nothing to do with nutrient cycling as it's understood in soils.

    Think about this one for a minute - Why is it that on weed infirmary boards in the coir section are there so many posts about Cal-Mag Lockout? No smell? No taste? Nutrient deficiencies & general lockouts?

    Sulfur is instrumental in the production of Secondary Metabolites, terpenes, terpenoids an ketones. That is established science and all the phosphorus in the world can't change that fact. The two favorite elements in this paradigm are Magnesium (God only knows for what reasons) and Phosphorus - start hi-dosing with these two and that garden is DOOMED even with flushing 3x the soil volume with some special water concoction.

    This ain't exactly rocket science - LOL


    Amending Between Cycles:

    I've continued with my post harvest ritual at the beginning of each cycle which includes ensuring a solid mulch layer consisting mainly of all the leaves and stems from harvest, a sprinkling of neem (Karanja meal actually), kelp and MBP and a sprinkling of some sort of cover crop type seed which is usually fenugreek or Crimson clover (I just did a cycle with chia and lo and behold some flowered and produced seed!) - about 1/4 cup of each typically. The MBP is a weekly/biweekly addition anyways and the neem/kelp is just at the start of the cycle and likely once more by early flower. You could say neem/kelp is topdressed about every 8 weeks.

    As far as vermicompost is concerned there is no outside vermicompost or compost that is added to the soil - that process takes place directly in the containers via decomposition of the mulch layer and topdressed inputs (breaks down into compost, essentially) and then the worms have at it processing it and depositing their castings throughout your soil. Pretty neat right?! I think so anyways!

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  2. #2 Sc00byD00bie, Sep 8, 2016
    Last edited: Jul 10, 2020

    Here’s an example* of a tried and true watering schedule (because I personally used it for years) to use from day 1 to ensure your plants are being pushed to ‘peak health’ and expressing their full ‘genetic potential.’:

    Day 1 Plain water
    Day 2 No watering
    Day 3 MBP top-dress watered in with Aloe/Fulvic/Silica (agsil or your silica source of choice)
    Day 4 No watering
    Day 5 Plain water
    Day 6 Neem/Kelp tea
    Day 7 No watering
    Day 8 Plain water
    Day 9 No watering
    Day 10 Coconut Water
    Day 11 No watering

    REPEAT - Beginning to end, no changes needed for various stages of growth, simple enough right?
    *(Scooby note: This is an example only and should not be taken litterally, meaning you can follow the order but only water when plants NEED watering. A young plant might only need to be watered once a week for instance)

    Now for all the reasons previously stated your soil is becoming richer and richer as the water and nutrient retaining ability of your soil improves over time. By the 3rd cycle the plants may already be showing signs that you could back off on the above watering schedule and that can be done any number of ways to best suit your situation. For example, use half the amount of neem/kelp tea and coconut water. Add a couple extra days of plain water in between 'feedings', and so on.

    Here's an example of a watering schedule a couple or few years into established no-till gardens (it happens to be my current routine as well):

    - Plain water every other day, beginning to end
    - MBP top-dress every 10-12 days watered with aloe/fulvic/silica


    How Much to Water?
    Q: When you water a 20 gal as often as you suggest, what amount of liquid are you using per watering/feeding? It seems as though one could get root rot if they watered this often.

    Good question! Fabric pots is THE way to go and makes the whole over/under watering deal much much more forgiving. A 20gal smart pot with a fully grown or at least established plant can take 3/4-1gal of water every other day and this is largely generalized as ones environment (temps and RH) play a huge factor in this, obviously this is based on my garden but other gardens I am involved with or have helped seem to be sticking with that same general amount. Young plants don't need as much water obviously because the roots haven't yet penetrated the full body of soil. A full watering when the soil is first placed in the container or at transplant, whatever the case is, and then it might only need a light watering or misting on the topsoil/mulch. Gauging watering needs in your garden will get easier with time and as your soil matures it also retains much more water and this will be noticed as you get through a few cycles.

    Ammending between cycles:
    Q: At the conclusion of harvest, you top dress with all your leaves and stems along with neem and mbp. Do you then allow the container to sit (moistened) for few weeks to allow the material to begin to break down before planting?
    You can harvest a plant and then immediately transplant a new small rooted plant right into the container. I've transplanted the day of harvest, the day after, a week after, a couple weeks after - it makes absolutely no difference. Too easy right? :D

    How Soon To Start Seedlings:
    A couple weeks in or around the time of the first true leaves is a good time to start with the schedule BUT each and every one of these inputs can be watered to seedlings without worry especially MBP, aloe, fulvic, silica, coconut water - I would start botanical teas off at about half strength for the first time or two. A paste is fine but I usually just take 1/2 cup neem and 1/4 cup kelp in a cloth bag of sorts and drop it into 5gal of water for 24 hrs, aeration optional - I just stir it a couple times if i think about it....


    On Watering Young Plants:
    Q: When you plant a new clone into one of your 45s, how often do you find yourself watering? It HAS to be less often then a plant in full flower, right?

    A: Much much less water but not less often. I make sure before transplanting the soil remains moist and gets a deep watering if needed the day before. After transplant it's just a light topsoil watering every other day for up to one to two weeks before it needs another deep watering and higher amounts of water each time.

    Neem / Kelp Tea:

    1/2 cup neem seem meal
    1/4 cup kelp meal
    In 5 gal water for 24hrs
    *(you can use either kelp or neem or both depending on what tea you want)

    *(Scooby note: Original post says to bubble but since we are not making microbial tea here it is really sufficient to just agitate the water a few times during the steep without requiring a pump and airstone)

    I keep the cloth bags worms are shipped in and use those to put whatever I'm bubbling in so it stays contained.
    To this finished tea before watering I'll add powdered aloe at 1/4tsp per gal and fulpower fulvic acid at 10ml per gal.

    For new soils or soils that are lacking this can and should be used at half to full strength and as often as once weekly, maybe alternating with an alfalfa/kelp tea at the same amount.
    I dilute the 5gal tea to whatever I need and that's more often than not 20gal water.

    Why Neem?

    From the University of Waikato, New Zealand is this helpful article on the how & why Neem products function.

    Neem protects itself from the multitude of pests with a multitude of pesticidal ingredients. Its main chemical broadside is a mixture of 3 or 4 related compounds, and it backs these up with 20 or so others that are minor but nonetheless active in one way or another. In the main, these compounds belong to a general class of natural products called "triterpenes"; more specifically, "limonoids."

    So far, at least nine neem limonoids have demonstrated an ability to block insect growth, affecting a range of species that includes some of the most deadly pests of agriculture and human health. New limonoids are still being discovered in neem, but Azadirachtin, Salannin, Meliantriol and Nimbin are the best known and, for now at least, seem to be the most significant.

    One of the first active ingredients isolated from neem, azadirachtin has proved to be the tree's main agent for battling insects. It appears to cause some 90 percent of the effect on most pests. It does not kill insects - at least not immediately. Instead it both repels and disrupts their growth and reproduction. Research over the past 20 years has shown that it is one of the most potent growth regulators and feeding deterrents ever assayed. It will repel or reduce the feeding of many species of pest insects as well as some nematodes. In fact, it is so potent that a mere trace of its presence prevents some insects from even touching plants.

    Azadirachtin is structurally similar to insect hormones called "ecdysones," which control the process of metamorphosis as the insects pass from larva to pupa to adult. It affects the corpus cardiacum, an organ similar to the human pituitary, which controls the secretion of hormones. Metamorphosis requires the careful synchrony of many hormones and other physiological changes to be successful, and azadirachtin seems to be an "ecdysone blocker." It blocks the insect's production and release of these vital hormones. Insects then will not molt. This of course breaks their life cycle.

    On average, neem kernels contain between 2 and 4 mg of Azadirachtin per gram of kernel. The highest figure so far reported - 9 mg per g - was measured in samples from Senegal.

    Although thousand-year-old Sanskrit medical writings mention neem's usefulness, the tree's exciting potential for controlling insects has only recently become clear.

    Neem's ability to repel insects was first reported in the scientific literature in 1928 and 1929. Two Indian scientists, R.N. Chopra and M.A. Husain, used a O.001-percent aqueous suspension of ground neem kernels to repel desert locusts. Not until 1962, however, was the real significance demonstrated. That year, in field tests in New Delhi, S. Pradhan ground up neem kernels in water and sprayed the resulting suspension over different crops. He found that, although locusts landed on the plants, they refused to eat anything, sometimes for up to 3 weeks after the treatment. Furthermore, he noted that neem kernels were even more potent than the conventional insecticides then available and that neem's repellency was as important as its toxicity. In neighboring insecticide-treated fields, for instance, the insects also died, but not before consuming the crops.

    Neem's insect-growth-regulating (IGR) effects were independently observed in England and Kenya in 1972. In England, L.N.E. Ruscoe, at that time an employee of the ICI Company, tested Azadirachtin on insect pests such as cabbage white butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and cotton stainer bug (Dysdercus fasciatus) and noted IGR effects in each case. The Azadirachtin was provided by D. Morgan, a Keele University chemist who had been the first to isolate Azadirachtin. In Kenya that same year, K. Leuschner, a German graduate student working at the Coffee Research Station in Upper Kiambu, observed that a methanolic neemleaf extract controlled the coffee bug (Antestiopsis orbitalis bechuana) by growth-regulating effects. Most fifth-instar nymphs treated with the extract died during subsequent molts and the few that survived to adulthood had malformed wings and thoraxes.

    Neem's fecundity-reducing effects were first recorded by R. Steets (another graduate student) and H. Schmutterer in Germany. Applying methanolic neem-kernel extract and Azadirachtin to the Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis) and the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) they found that females almost stopped laying eggs. Some females had been completely sterilized, and the effect was irreversible.

    Another feeding inhibitor, Meliantriol, is able, in extremely low concentrations, to cause insects to cease eating. The demonstration of its ability to prevent locusts chewing on crops was the first scientific proof for neem's traditional use for insect control on India's crops.

    Yet a third triterpenoid isolated from neem is Salannin. Studies indicate that this compound also powerfully inhibits feeding, but does not influence insect molts. The migratory locust, California red scale, striped cucumber beetle, houseflies, and the Japanese beetle have been strongly deterred in both laboratory and field tests.

    Nimbin and Nimbidin
    Two more neem components, Nimbin and Nimbidin, have been found to have antiviral activity. They affect potato virus X, vaccinia virus, and fowl pox virus. They could perhaps open a way to control these and other viral diseases of crops and livestock.

    Nimbidin is the primary component of the bitter principles obtained when neem seeds are extracted with alcohol. It occurs in sizable quantities - about 2% of the kernel.

    Certain minor ingredients also work as antihormones. Research has shown that some of these minor neem chemicals even paralyze the "swallowing mechanism" and so prevent insects from eating. Examples of these newly found limonoids from neem include DeacetylAzadirachtinol. This ingredient, isolated from fresh fruits, appears to be as effective as Azadirachtin in assays against the tobacco budworm, but it has not yet been widely tested in field practice.


    Coconut Water:
    1/4 cup per gallon
    once a week is what I've been doing consistently for over a year now.
    I was sold after the first few applications and the ease of training to encourage side branching pays for itself as the increased levels of cytokinins available really jumpstarts that process!

    With my watering routine I felt that coconut water rounded out the menu nicely that already included sprouts and aloe.


    Coconut Water Powder:
    Take a TBSP and add to 12oz water and that reconstituted pure coconut water - from there use 1/4 cup per gal.


    Malted Barley / Sprouted Seed Tea:
    Enzymes are catalysts the effect specific biological functions in humans, animals and plants. You can toss in fungi, bacteria, et al. in this discussion. For example vermicompost is a function of the enzymes in composting worms. The bacterial slime that worms ingest are converted to worm castings in the worm's digestive tract. Worms also exude specific enzymes into the food stock to trigger specific responses from microbes. A partnership if you will.

    Almost every seed contains a range of shared enzymes - Amylase, Urease, Phosphatase, Chitinase, Protease, et al. Seed germination is 100% a function of enzymes having absolutely nothing to do with NPK or any other element. Seeds are encoded with these enzymes from the mother plant.

    When we germinate a seed these enzymes are activated and other enzymes are altered by the seed itself from germination-inhibitors to ones that will insure the viability of the seedlings.

    Where the differences come are the levels of specific enzymes and I'll use barley seeds as an example because there is a plethora of information from beer brewers, distillers (barley is what makes Scotch whiskey for example). Barley seeds contain a-amylase and b-amalyse which are enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars.

    Enzymes are specific to a given function, in other words Urease has no effect on Chitin, Protein or Phosphorus which need Chitinase, Protease and Phosphatase for that function.

    Corn is a good example as well because what you get from this grass seed are cytokinins. See if this helps answer your question about corn specifically...

    Nature of Cytokinins
    Cytokinins are compounds with a structure resembling adenine which promote cell division and have other similar functions to kinetin. Kinetin was the first cytokinin discovered and so named because of the compounds ability to promote cytokinesis (cell division). Though it is a natural compound, It is not made in plants, and is therefore usually considered a "synthetic" cytokinin (meaning that the hormone is synthesized somewhere other than in a plant). The most common form of naturally occurring cytokinin in plants today is called zeatin which was isolated from corn (Zea mays).

    Cytokinins have been found in almost all higher plants as well as mosses, fungi, bacteria, and also in tRNA of many prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Today there are more than 200 natural and synthetic cytokinins combined. Cytokinin concentrations are highest in meristematic regions and areas of continuous growth potential such as roots, young leaves, developing fruits, and seeds (Arteca, 1996; Mauseth, 1991; Raven, 1992; Salisbury and Ross, 1992).

    Cytokinin Functions
    A list of some of the known physiological effects caused by cytokinins are listed below. The response will vary depending on the type of cytokinin and plant species (Davies, 1995; Mauseth, 1991; Raven, 1992; Salisbury and Ross, 1992).

    • Stimulates cell division.
    • Stimulates morphogenesis (shoot initiation/bud formation) in tissue culture.
    • Stimulates the growth of lateral buds-release of apical dominance.
    • Stimulates leaf expansion resulting from cell enlargement.
    • May enhance stomatal opening in some species.
    • Promotes the conversion of etioplasts into chloroplasts via stimulation of chlorophyll synthesis.
    That's a start least now you can understand that a bottle of 'enzymes' from Hydro-Heaven is absolutely and completely useless without knowing what enzymes are used - if any.

    Malted Corn:
    Q: So do you think the same topdressing method would work well with corn? Do you think it would be beneficial to use a mixture of corn and barley for a wider enzyme profile? If so it might be nice to use it that way and drop the expensive coconut water. Maybe I could just topdress with a barley/corn blend and alternate watering between a aloe, fulvic, silica mix and just plain water?

    A: If we were at Instagram I could send you to a feed where they have began using malted non-GMO organic corn mixed 1:1 with malted barley. I assume you're wanting the benefit of the cytokinin Zeatine which is responsible for lateral growth, in part.

    I've been using corn for a bit longer, again as a top-dress. Though I've been alternating week by week. Figure out what's best for your situation and schedule.


    Malted Barely Application Rate:
    The range of "ok to use" appears to be rather large but you can use this as a basis and adjust as needed to your container size.

    1/4-1/2 cup per 20 gal container. 1-2 cups per 45gal.

    in general 1/4 cup per plant, for example if you're in large beds.

    I've basically mulched with MBP with only positive signs. as in 2 cups in a 5gal bucket.


    Malt Your Own Seeds:
    Malting Your Own Grains
    Although this column is typically devoted to techniques for making beer, this time we’re taking a step back and looking at making one of beer’s essential ingredients, the malt itself. Malt is simply barley that has been sprouted to the point where enzymes are produced that will convert its starchy interior to sugar. If a barley seed is carefully halted in its quest to grow, the result will be a starch-packed kernel with enzymes at the ready for mashing. Additionally, the kilning (heating) that occurs during malting develops color and flavor in the husks.

    There are four basic steps to making malt: steeping, germination, drying and kilning. Now before you think this process is too difficult or complicated to do yourself, the only really specialized piece of equipment you may find particularly helpful is a food dehydrator. With a little planning and a few minutes of work a day for several days, a home malt-works is in the reach of most homebrewers.

    The first step in malting is steeping. In this stage, the moisture content of the barley is increased from the 12–13% moisture present in barley seed to the 42–46% required for germination to proceed. Steeping has two components, wet steeping and air rests.

    Since the barley kernels being malted are alive and respiring, they need air. Therefore, too long of a steep and the seeds will drown and die. Too short of a steep and the seeds will not take on enough water to successfully sprout.

    For the initial wet steep, the barley should be steeped in cool (50–60 °F/10–15 °C), hard (or at least not softened) water for about eight hours, but no more than sixteen hours unless vigorous aeration is supplied. If you have an aquarium aerator or a trickle of water running to replenish oxygen, this will help supply oxygen to the kernels during the steeping period. I just use an ordinary 3 to 5 gallon (11–19 L) plastic pail.

    After a period of steeping, excess water should be drained off and the grain allowed to rest for eight to ten hours in a cool (50–70 °F/10–21°C) place. The initial steeping water will carry away dirt from the outside of the barley kernel as well as dissolved husk components that would yield unpleasant flavors in your beer. This step is called an air rest. After the resting period, the barley needs to be steeped again for another eight hours. After the second steep, the water is drained off and the moisture content checked to make sure the barley has taken on an appropriate amount of water. After being properly steeped, the barley should contain about 42–46% moisture by weight. Shoot for the lower end of the range if you are trying to make a pale base malt, such as Pilsner malt. For a darker malt, like Munich malt, aim for the high end of the moisture range.

    I aim for 45% moisture. This translates to 20 oz. (0.58 g) of wet barley for each pound (0.45 kg) of “dry” barley (12 % moisture) used at the start. I weigh out 4.0 lb. (1.8 kg) of barley seed before steeping. Then after steeping, I can check to see that it weighs about 5.1 lbs. (2.3 kg) to be sure it has taken on the proper amount of water. If the barley has imbibed thenecessary amount of water, it will begin to sprout (or chit, in maltster lingo) and begin the process of germination.

    In most modern malting plants, the duration of wet steeps are shorter (4–6 hours) and more water changes and air rests are employed. The above method, however, which is based on more traditional English malting methods, works well at home.

    If you are malting sorghum for a gluten-free beer, your steeping temperature should be significantly higher (80–86 °F/27-30 °C). Use several short (4–6 hour) wet steeps, with air rests in between, until the moisture percentage reaches 52–58%.

    During the second stage of malting, germination, the roots and shoot emerge from the kernel. Inside the kernel, the production of enzymes proceeds and the hard interior endosperm of the grain is broken down. The degree to which this is accomplished is called modification. Properly modified barley will have undergone changes to also modify the gums and proteins in the kernel. Good malt should have the enzymatic power to be able to convert not only the starch from its own kernels, but also that of other adjuncts in the mash.

    Once steeping is complete, the germinated grains need to be spread out and allowed to sprout. Sprouting grain is obviously very much alive, and as such undergoes respiration, which produces heat. The sprouting grain must be kept cool and moist, but not wet and cold. Grain that is too wet and warm may encourage the growth of mold. Grain that is too dry or cold may not continue to sprout properly. If sprouting barley is kept moist and cool (55–64 °F/13–18 °C) the modification process should proceed smoothly. You can let the temperature rise up to 71 °F (22 °C) towards the end of the germination step. For darker malts, your germination temperature can be slightly higher — 73–77 °F (23–25 °C.)

    Uniformity of modification is the goal during germination. All the barley should sprout and modify at the same pace so when the time comes to end the germination phase, every kernel will be properly modified. In order to achieve uniformity, it is necessary to turn the malt at least twice daily. Turning the malt by hand — using your fingers to untangle the rootlets — will make sure that as the grain is misted with water it is all moistened the same. Turning also allows heat to be dissipated, keeping all the grain at the same temperature.

    A small-scale approach to the germination process is to lay the steeped grain about 3⁄4 in. (1.9 cm) deep over a single layer of paper towels on shallow roasting pans or cookie sheets. The pans can then be slid into plastic trash bags and the end folded under the pan to hold in moisture. When the grain needs to be turned, the pan can be removed from the bag, the grain turned and moistened with a little spray bottle filled with water. Then the pan of grain is returned to the bag again to continue sprouting.

    Each time the grain is turned and moistened, it should be carefully inspected to monitor its progress. The shoot or acrospire will grow underneath the husk starting from the root-end of each grain (where the rootlets will begin to emerge and grow). The shoot is the part of the sprout that will become the above-ground part of the barley plant. The growing shoot is not easily observed under the husk. To monitor shoot development, take a kernel and cut it open with a razor-sharp blade. This will expose the shoot to determine its progress.

    The sprouting process will usually take 3–5 days from when the steeped barley was spread out after steeping. Modification is complete when the shoot is almost the full length of the kernel of grain. By the time the first white shoot tips poke out of the husk, most of the remaining kernels should be fully modified. By this stage, there will also be 4 or 5 rootlets of various lengths protruding from the other end of the kernel. For darker malts, germination is allowed to proceed slightly farther than for malts destined to become pale malts.

    If you are making sorghum malt, germination needs to proceed to the point that the shoots extend about 1.5–2 kernel lengths to ensure that adequate enzymatic power is developed.

    A simple test for modification can be performed by biting a few kernels to see if they are crumbly inside. The modification process typically proceeds from the base of the kernel where the roots appear, and works toward the tip. To test for modification, put a kernel between your incisor teeth and bite down starting at the root end and working your way to the tip. The modified portion of the kernel will give way and be crumbly. Any unmodified part of the kernel will still be hard and “steely,” and resist being crushed by your teeth.

    Drying and Kilning
    Once the malt is fully modified, it is dried immediately and then cured at high temperatures. These are the final two steps of malting — drying and kilning.

    Drying stops the sprouting process at the point where the endosperm has been converted to starch granules and the enzymes to convert starch to sugar have been produced.

    Initial drying must be done with care. If the malt is dried at too high a temperature, the enzymes may be denatured (inactivated). Moist malted barley (called green malt) fresh from modification should be dried at temperatures less than 125 °F (52 °C) until it has dried down to 10–12% moisture or less. Below this level, the malt can be dried at higher temperature without affecting the enzymes.

    With this in mind, it is most practical to dry malt at a temperature of 100–
    125 °F (38–52°C) in a food dehydrator or some similar arrangement where a good air flow and proper temperature control can be maintained. At 10% moisture, the malt should weigh about 0.5 oz. (14 g) less per pound (0.45 kg) than your starting weight. After 10% moisture is reached, the temperature should be increased to 140–160 °F (60–71 °C) until the malt is at or below 6% moisture — 3–5% is the target for most malts. This will be a little less than 13 oz. (376 g) for each original pound (0.45 kg) of seed barley. There are various types of electronic grain moisture testing meters, but they are fairly expensive ($200 to $2,000), so unless you know a farmer or grain elevator manager you can borrow one from, you’ll just have to weigh your malt and do the math. The entire drying process typically takes six to eight hours in a food dehydrator. After the malt is dried, it should be sieved to remove the dried rootlets, which may cause problems during kilning, storage, or milling.

    Kilning (roasting) the dried malt develops the final desired character and flavor. Unkilned malt will produce a “green” tasting wort and resulting beer. To produce standard pale malt, the dried malt should be kilned for three to five hours at 176–185 °F (80–85 °C). This can typically be achieved in your home oven with an inexpensive oven thermometer.

    However, as we all know, there are a wide variety of brewing malts available in many different colors and flavors. Malt can be kilned at temperatures between 220–400 °F (104–204 °C) for various periods of time to produce darker or more aromatic malts. For example, try 220 °F (105 °C) for 4 hours for a Munich-style malt. Any malt kilned at temperatures over 194 °F (90 °C) will develop melanoidins, the “malty” flavor found in Munich and other dark malts. During the kilning process, occasional stirring will result in a more uniform final product. More highly kilned malts will have little or no enzymatic power.

    Crystal malt is produced by “stewing,” rather than kilning, green malt. This approach is simply mashing within the kernel, by heating the green malt to mashing temperatures without letting it dry. Crystal malt can be produced by putting green malt in a covered dish and holding it between 150–170 °F (66–77 °C) for a couple hours then spreading it out on an open pan at 250 °F (121 °C) until it achieves the desired color. The longer it kilns, the darker and more caramelized the sugars will become.

    After malt has been kilned sufficiently, the malt should be allowed to cool to room temperature then stored in a cool, dry place in a closed container. With some basic equipment and a little care, producing malt is within reach of any homebrewer who would like to add the technique of malt-making to their repertoire, and homemade malt to their next batch of homebrew.

    Finally, there is one possible health and safety issue associated with malting your own grain. If your malting grain is infected with Fusarium mold, it will produce beer that may be unhealthy to drink. Fortunately, affected beer will also gush when opened, so you will know if you need to discard it. If you buy your grain, rather than grow it yourself, ask if it has been tested for Fusarium.[/QUOTE]

    Sprouted Seed Tea (old method, has been replaced with topdress):

    Weigh out 1 oz. of malted barley grain for each gallon of enzyme tea you wish to make. Grind that to a powder and a cheapo coffee bean grinder works very well for this.

    Add the powder to about 1/2 gallon of water and an airstone is helpful but not mandatory. If you have kelp meal on hand add about 2 tsp. and you want to bubble this for 4 hours.

    Strain & drain this into a bucket and fill with dechlorinated water for the total volume of tea you want to apply to the soil. Add 1/2 oz. per gallon of Ful-Power and 1/4 cup of Aloe vera juice per gallon or the equivalent amount of 200XX Aloe vera powder.

    Drench your soil - that's it.


    Alfalfa Kelp Tea:
    The tea that I mix is 1 cup alfalfa meal, 1/4 cup kelp meal and I bubble that for 24 - 36 hours.
    Whatever works for you - nothing is cast in stone. What I look for is 'that smell' I remember as a young kid growing up in Southern California when we would go surfing. Kelp meal when reconstituted smells like it does in at dawn when the beach is quiet and all you can hear are the waves crashing - smells like the ocean.

    Then I know it's ready - pretty scientific stuff we're talking about!

    Always, always follow the application information on BioAg's labels. I'm certainly not going to second guess a mentor of mine, Dr. Robert Faust. He's the one that inspired me to focus on using neem meal as a soil amendment in every garden situation. That sage advice has helped me grow the strongest plants possible.

    And for the NPK Kidz the neem tree is one of the world's premier bionutrient accumulator on par with kelp, alfalfa, comfrey, et al.


    What Should I Feed During Flowering?
    A couple years ago my flower room was still permanently on 12/12 and I was switching over containers to no-till. The easiest in that setup was the 5gal paint buckets because they could easily move from the veg room to the flower room.

    The large smart pots I started setting up were permanent fixtures in the flower room. I never liked the fact that I was transplanting the day the plant started 12/12. 97% of the time the transition was seamless but any amount of transplant shock (mistakes happen....plants fall....rootballs fall apart LOL) left the plant stunted both trying to recover and transition to flowering at the same time.

    Anyways it lasted longer than it should have LOL I think it was a good 6 months before I finally got the rooms set up to veg in place in the notills......but what that time did allow for was an awesome experiment that I benefited tremendously from seeing first hand.

    I kept a 45gal smart pot with multiple strains between 6-11 plants at any given time, and with all different harvest times....sativas, indicas, hybrids, you name it it was in there. Instead of waiting until all the plants were harvested I would replant immediately after each individual plants were harvested.

    By 3 months and going into 4 months I had plants in all stages of flowering in the same body of soil. Some just starting, some halfway through and some ready to harvest etc...I watered everything on a schedule with no regard to what stage of flowering anything was. The rotation was something like sprouts-coconut-water-tea or in some such order and I was using botanical teas much more frequently then.... Some of my observations:

    It made no difference if a plant was fed alfalfa tea the day of harvest or plain water for the last two weeks - both taste, smell and smoke great.

    Some plants stayed dark green until the end, some faded into beautiful fall colors, and everything in between. Guess what? They all cured up to a very quality and smooth finish product.

    Since then I really pay no attention to what stage of growth the plant is, the soil is the powerhouse. The relationship the plant creates with the soil is in charge - my 'feedings' are supplemental to this process providing the plant and soil with everything it could possibly need to keep it in a state of 'peak health' that ensures the plant is allowed to grow to its full 'genetic potential.'

    My thoughts anyhow....

    Why dont you make any compost tea?
    I keep it as simple as possible while at the same time doing my best to always maintain 'peak health' in the garden. In using notills and thinking of soil health in terms of years instead of individual cycles, things like compost teas are out the window. With high quality soil mixes and humus you're not going to see long term benefits from continually aplying ACT. Simply keeping the soil moist and when watering a compost tea is 'brewing' right there in your soil and to the appropriate to speak. :)

    Long term. Mulch. Once per cycle vermicompost topdress. And I choose to supement this process with weekly applications of enzyme teas, aloe Vera and fresh coconut water.

    Can I Use Chlorinated Tap Water?
    You could always just add a small amount of compost or vermicompost to negate the chloramine in the water (majority of water treatment plants switched to chloramine from chlorine in the early - mid 00's; it will not gas off via aeration or evaporation like chlorine).

    Something like 1/4 cup per 5 gallon bucket IIRC....might be as low as 2 TBS per 5 gallon bucket. It's been a minute since I've looked into that part and it's not something I've had to deal with in the past.

    But anywhoo, while there isn't much research into chloramines long term effects on soil the general consensus seems to be it's not dangerous to the majority of microfauna in a high humus soil. I had a post around here somewhere discussing the effects from one of the few publications I found regarding toxicity to water ecosystems and fauna.

    ~I found my old post and the file, here ya go:
    There doesn't seem to be much academic research into chloramine's effects upon soil life or plant health but I did happen to find a couple tidbits. Soil organisms
    No information is available that was directly relevant to the effects of inorganic chloramines in soils. However, the available evidence indicates that negative impacts on soil microorganisms from inorganic chloramines are unlikely. First, a proportion of the inorganic chloramine would be lost prior to entering the soil environment (e.g., from volatilization, photolysis, reaction with particulates) and hence would not come into contact with soil microbes. Upon infiltrating soils, the treated water would be exposed to a variety of organic materials that are extremely reactive with inorganic chloramines. These organic substances serve as effective reducing agents that change the form of inorganic chloramines and bind them to the soil matrix. Although there are limited data regarding these transformation products and their toxicity, their disinfection potential is usually considered limited. According to Zellmer et al. (1987), hypochlorous acid applied in the form of calcium hypochlorite will be immobilized and deactivated by a mineral soil (i.e., fine-silty clay loam).
    The disinfection molecule in aqueous solution must come into contact with the microorganism in order for inactivation to occur. The presence of particulates can provide protection to microorganisms against disinfectants. The protection afforded bacteria associated with surface solids would most likely result from physical interference with the transport of the chloramine molecules towards the organism, because of a barrier of charges associated with the particulate (Gerba and Stagg, 1979). Microorganisms embedded in particulate matter may be afforded significant protection from a disinfectant (Berman et al., 1988).
    In addition, it should be noted that there have been no historic accounts of environmental impacts resulting from inorganic chloramine release to soils or to any phase other than water.
    Since populations of soil microorganisms and soil processes are not likely to be harmed from the application of inorganic chloramines to soils, the assessment of chloramine ri sk in soils did not proceed to Tier 2. Soils
    There are no studies evaluating the fate of inorganic chloramines on/in soils. Based on related information on fate associated with sediments and surface waters, inorganic chloramines would experience chemical reaction with particulates, volatilization and photolysis at the soil surface and chemical reaction and adsorption within the soil matrix. Inorganic chloramine may oxidize surface layer soil organic matter (Bodek et al., 1988), particularly materials composed of organic nitrogen compounds, such as alkyl sulfides, amines and some nitrogen heterocyclic aromatics (e.g., see Christman et al., 1983; Scully and White, 1992).
    Another couple of resources
    View attachment Soil and Applied Chlorine - UW Madison.pdf

    Fix-It Worm Castings Slurry:
    I think that an EWC slurry has far, far more benefits in this and other situations.

    2x water to 1x EWC with a strong air pump. Let this go for 12-14 hours and 'slather the slurry' on top of your containers. The difference is difficult to imagine or even explain. I got this from Dr. Clive A. Edwards at Ohio State University who has over 65 years studying composting worms and related technologies.


    Slurry With Kelp:

    1/4 cup of kelp meal
    3 gallons of water

    Aerate this for 24 - 36 hours and now you have a kelp meal tea.

    Add 2 gallons of EWC and aerate that for another 24 - 36 hours.

    Apply this at about 1.5" thick on your soil.

    See if that doesn't take care of business because just the kelp meal alone will correct any and all nutrient deficiencies. The benefit from the EWC you already understand.

    Sprouted Seed Tea (from live seed):
    Weigh out 2 oz. of Barley seed and remove any foreign matter by the seeds into a large jar and fill it half-

    way with water and agitate to wash the barley. Pour off loose husks & dirt that float to the top. Drain in acolander. Repeat until everything has been removed.

    Soak the seeds in water for 8 - 10 hours. Drain the seeds and weigh after completely draining the water off. Assuming you started with 56 grams, you want to hit a minimum of 84 grams at the end of these processes.

    Let the Barley rest for 8 - 10 hours and then soak for another 8 hours, drain and weigh. Repeat if

    necessary but that's not too likely.

    Take a piece of cloth and you want to use something as 'raw' as possible like hemp cloth, organic cotton, linen, canvas, flax, etc. - just check with a large fabric store. If you buy a piece that is a square it probably helps or doesn't.

    Wet your cloth, wring out and fold it 2 times. During the rest cycles this is where you want to let

    the seeds rest. You want moisture surrounding the seeds but not water. Once you hit 84+ grams, spread your seeds again in the middle of this folded piece of fabric, place that in a brown paper bag - 55F - 65F ambient temperatures will move this along quickly.

    When the shoots inside the seed have grown the length of the seed you're done. You're not growing sprouts but rather activating the enzymes and the compounds in the endosperm as described in the post above.

    Take these seeds and put them in a blender and some water and get it to a puree to the extent possible. Using 56 grams to start will give enough puree to make 5 gallons of tea. (or 1tbs/gallon)

    Water your plants with this diluted tea


    Fulvic acid added to the 2nd and subsequent soaks in SST v2.0 does facilitate

    enzyme production in the endosperm. In artisan barley malting they also use two other

    materials - coconut water & kelp meal both for the Gibberellin (GAs) content.

    Any seeds will work just fine, no reason to use this or that or the other special seed for the

    purpose of "extracting" enzymes - whatever is organic and of easy access to your locale and

    price point.

    there are other specific attributes that puréed seeds can offer aside from the enzyme "boost" I

    go for weekly. And not necessarily specific to just the seeds but to the plant as a whole.

    For example:

    Corn (non gmo!) for cytokinins - and this one may be specific to just the corn seed itself -

    CC/LD has tested this thoroughly with success, I haven't tried corn sprouts yet as I'm happy with

    results from coconut water (excellent source of cytokinins as well) and I'll never run out of

    barley seed DOH!

    Alfalfa - triacontanol - PGR

    Fenugreek - insecticidal properties (Nicotinic Acid - I believe?)

    Aside from the weekly IPM spray of Karanja/aloe/silica I've used soaked fenugreek sprouts

    alternated with cilantro teas as a base foliar for plants I've acquired that I knew had mites -

    they've never spread off those plants and were effectively eradicated, never had mites in the


    Cytokinin Functions

    A list of some of the known physiological effects caused by cytokinins are listed below.

    The response will vary depending on the type of cytokinin and plant species (Davies,

    1995; Mauseth, 1991; Raven, 1992; Salisbury and Ross, 1992).

    ● Stimulates cell division.

    ● Stimulates morphogenesis (shoot initiation/bud formation) in tissue culture.

    ● Stimulates the growth of lateral buds-release of apical dominance.

    ● Stimulates leaf expansion resulting from cell enlargement.

    ● May enhance stomatal opening in some species.

    ● Promotes the conversion of etioplasts into chloroplasts via stimulation of

    chlorophyll synthesis.

    malted barley - best enzymes

    In my minimal research I found pilsner, distillers and wheat malt have the highest enzyme

    levels. Not sure which are available as organic, or if it makes much difference.

    by the way, when making a sprout tea do i need to remove the seed husks before i puree them?

    No need to remove anything, just sprout (about the length of the seed - not all the way out),

    puree, I strain it, and water. Add some aloe and silica if you have it available.
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  3. #3 Sc00byD00bie, Sep 8, 2016
    Last edited: Oct 8, 2017
    (several recipes inside the quote)
    Soap Nut Tea:
    Soap nuts contain high amounts of saponins. saponins can be used to emulsify oil but also can be added to a drench or a standalone soap nut tea.

    Saponins are also an effective insecticide so it would be beneficial to add it to your IPM routine.

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  4. #4 Sc00byD00bie, Sep 8, 2016
    Last edited: Sep 8, 2016
    Coconut Water Cloning Mix:
    Seed Starter Mix:
    Starting Older Seeds:
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  5. #5 Sc00byD00bie, Sep 8, 2016
    Last edited: Nov 11, 2019


    Agsil16H Mixing Ratio (for making the equivalent of Pro-tekt Silica)
    Mix 35 grams of Agsil 16 with 8 oz. of water. That gives you the strength of Dyna-Gro Pro-TeKt.

    Emulsifier Alternative:

    D-Limonine Emulsifier:
    How Many Plants Per Container:
    On Rock Dust:
    Study that was done on the effects of basalt rock on crop lands PH and nutrient availability.
    Thanks @ElRanchoDeluxe for this!
    Potential of global croplands and bioenergy crops for climate change mitigation through deployment for enhanced weathering

    A few tidbits from the study:
    EW (enhanced weathering) with basalt, a fast-weathering, Ca- and Mg-rich silicate rock, has the potential to create a net C sink in these systems while reducing N loss, counteracting soil acidification, and supplying nutrients through the by-products of the weathering processes.

    The various forms of basalt contain 8–20% Ca and Mg oxides by weight, and 1–2% potassium oxides and phosphates, with small quantities of micronutrients, including Cu, Ni, and Zn (e.g. [2123]). In an agricultural setting, organic acids produced by plants weather the rock surface, liberating nutrients and dissolving silica [24]. Ca2+ and Mg2+ are among the most easily weathered base cations of basalt

    Basalts are among the fastest weathered silicate rocks

    (b) Effects of EW on soil pH and plant nutrition
    Approximately 30% of global soils are acidic (pH < 5.5), and continued overuse of ammonia-based N fertilizers adds free protons and lowers soil pH, resulting in the formation of insoluble nutrient compounds that are unusable by plants, nutrient deficiencies, reduced crop yield and water quality degradation [5,4951]. Plant uptake of base cations further lowers soil pH, and essential nutrients including P, K and S form compounds unavailable to plants as pH decreases. Conversely, plant-availability of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn increases at low pH, creating potential for metal toxicity (figure 1) [5,50]. EW consumes free protons in the formation of bicarbonate and raises soil pH, and may increase plant-availability of existing nutrients in the soil while adding micronutrients and Si [51,52]. Although EW does not directly sequester organic C from plants, increases in nutrient availability could support greater biomass production, and subsequently lead to increased organic C inputs to the soil system from roots and litter.

    Soil Building Calculator!
    Here's is a nifty excel spreadsheet to calculate how much of each ingredient you will need to mix any amount of soil, made by @A guy who has graciously offered to share with us.

    just plug in the number of pots and size you want to fill and it will do the rest, thanks A guy!

    Great Read on Soil Food Web and more! (Thanks @missinglighter! )

    H2O2 Sterilization:
    Use Hydrogen Peroxide to soak seeds and give them a boost when germinating: 30ml (3% H2O2) in 500ml water for initial 12H-24H soak, then rinse and continue with your regular germinating procedure.

    You can also sterilize your germinating and/or cloning media with it if you feel the need. I use it to sterilize my coco coir that I clone with since it sometimes contains gnat larvae eggs.

    You can also use H2O2 to wash buds before harvest to clean them and kill any mold spores. Use a sprayer to wash the plant then chop and hang to dry: 1cup 3% H2O2 in 5 gallons water.

    For total sterilization use 20ml per gallon of 35% h202.
    Organics Lounge
    Organics Lounge
    Thanks @FickySiskers !

    Coco Coir Vs Peat moss:
    Why you shouldn't choose coco coir instead of sphagnum peat moss to build your soil with? @ElRanchoDeluxe explains it perfectly. :thumbsup:

    Here's a quick link to the Study comparing coir and peat made by Utah State University:
    A Comparison of Coconut Coir and Sphagnum Peat as Soil-less Media Components for PlantGrowt

    H2O2 Sterilization:
    Use Hydrogen Peroxide to soak seeds and give them a boost when germinating: 30ml (3% H2O2) in 500ml water for initial 12H-24H soak, then rinse and continue with your regular germinating procedure.

    You can also sterilize your germinating and/or cloning media with it if you feel the need. I use it to sterilize my coco coir that I clone with since it sometimes contains gnat larvae eggs.

    You can also use H2O2 to wash buds before harvest to clean them and kill any mold spores. Use a sprayer to wash the plant then chop and hang to dry: 1cup 3% H2O2 in 5 gallons water.

    For total sterilization use 20ml per gallon of 35% h202.
    Organics Lounge
    Organics Lounge
    Thanks @FickySiskers !

    Coco Coir Vs Peat moss:

    Why you shouldn't choose coco coir instead of sphagnum peat moss to build your soil with? @ElRanchoDeluxe explains it perfectly. :thumbsup:
    Here's a quick link to the Study comparing coir and peat made by Utah State University:
    A Comparison of Coconut Coir and Sphagnum Peat as Soil-less Media Components for PlantGrowth

    (Thanks @Chunk for this amazing list!)

    Plants to the Rescue of Plants
    The basic method of fermentation is simple enough, which is not to say anything goes. First you need a container made of a nonreactive material. A 50-gallon plastic garbage can works fine. You need to cover your container during fermentation, but not tightly, or it might explode! Either punch some holes in your garbage can lid or cover the can with a piece of burlap or other cloth. While you can use smaller containers, 50 gallons is an optimal homeowner-scale size that is big enough to help moderate temperature extremes during fermentation.An unheated garage or outbuilding is a good place to conduct the fermentation, the speed of which is temperature dependent. The higher the temperature--up to a point--the faster the fermentation.

    The water you use is very important. The ideal source of water is rain, being free of calcareous minerals or additives such as chlorine which can retard or stop fermentation. If you must use hard well water, add a bit of vinegar to it to lower the pH. City water should be allowed to stand several days to allow the chlorine to evaporate before you use it for your extracts.

    The duration of fermentation can range from a few days to a couple of weeks. When the mixture stops bubbling when you stir or otherwise move the contents, fermentation is complete. Check your brew daily.

    It is imperative that you filter your extract. Doing so stops the fermentation from going too far, and also prevents globs of stuff from plugging up your sprayer or watering can when you apply the brew. Use a very fine strainer lined with cheesecloth, an old clean teeshirt, anything short of a coffee filter or other filter paper, which filters out too much.

    Store your extract in stainless steel or plastic containers in a cool place, around 40-50 degrees F being ideal. French folks like to use 5-gallon plastic wine containers, appropriately enough. While a wine cellar is also an excellent place to store your extracts, make sure to label carefully!

    Once you have your made your extract or infusion, you of course need to apply it. Most often, you spray it on, just as you would a conventional pesticide or foliar fertilizer, taking care to cover the undersides of leaves. But some remedies are applied as a soil drench. This is best accomplished with a good old-fashioned watering can.

    Okay, now that you know the basics, here is the roster of beneficial plants and how to use them.

    Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) Perennial plant with silvery, aromatic foliage.
    Action. Repellent, especially against cabbage butterflies and codling moth on apples during period of egg-laying. Fungicidal against rust on currants.
    Fermented extract (2 lbs. of fresh plant material to 2.5 gallons water) Undiluted for rust on currants. Undiluted sprayed on soil to repel slugs. Diluted to 10% against codling moth and cabbage worm. Note: Do not throw detritus of fermentation on compost, as it will slow its breakdown.

    Fernleaf yarrow (Achillea millefolium)
    Perennial plant with ferny, silvery, aromatic foliage and white flowers.
    Active ingredients: pro-azulene, a volatile oil; isovalerianic and salicylic acids (salicylic acid is aspirin, which is why a tea of this plant reduces pain and fever in humans.)
    Action. Promotes compost breakdown; potentiates fungicides.
    Cold maceration. 1 oz. of dried flowers in 1 quart of water; macerate 24 hours. Add to fungicide treatment, such as horsetail or tansy.

    Garlic (Allium sativum)
    Needs no explanation, except to say that garlic is perennial if left in place.
    Active ingredients. Sulfur-containing compounds.
    Action. Insecticide and fungicide.
    Preparation. In decoction: chop 4 oz. peeled cloves and add to 1 quart water. Bring to boil, cover and remove from heat, infuse for one hour. Strain and use without diluting. Used as a soil drench, excellent to prevent damping off of seedlings. In oil maceration: Place 4 oz. of peeled cloves and 2 T. linseed oil in a mixer or blender and pulverize. Filter, washing the filtrate (and mixing in) 1 qt. rainwater. Store one week before using. Adding a bit of soap as a surfactant before spraying is useful. Effective against aphids and mites.
    Note: This is a great use for spare garlic at the end of the winter storage season, which is beginning to sprout and taste unpalatable.

    Cocklebur (Arctium lappa). Infamous biennial weed.
    Active ingredients. Tanins, mucilage, resins, sulfate and potassium phosphate, calcium, and magnesium.
    Action. Fungicide effective against mildew on potatoes.
    Preparation. Use the whole plant before flowering. The root has the most active ingredients. In fermented extract, use 2 lbs. fresh plant to 2.5 gal. of water. Attention: strong odor! Filter and dilute to 5% before spraying on potato foliage. Also, just pick the leaves and use them as a mulch on your potatoes.

    Nasturtium (Trapaeolum majus). Flowering annual.
    Active ingredients. Sulfur-containing compounds.
    Action. Fungicidal against canker on tree fruits. Insectifuge against white fly (repellent).
    Preparation. In infusion, 2 lbs. fresh leaves in 5 quarts of water. Boil water, add leaves, infuse like tea one hour. Use undiluted on fruit trees. Dilute to 30% to spray tomatoes against mildew.

    Comfreys (Symphytum officinalis, S. x uplandicum). Flowering perennial.
    Active ingredients. Allantoin, which stimulates cell multiplication. This is why allantoin is such an excellent ingredient for skin creams, especially for chapped skin.
    Action.Comfrey is a powerful stimulator of all cell multiplication, e.g. growth. It stimulates microbial growth in the soil, and in compost, thus acting as an 'activator'. Comfrey stimulates seedling development as well as foliar growth.
    Preparation. In fermented extract, use 2 lbs. of fresh leaves in 2.5 gal. of water. As a soil drench, dilute to 20%; as a foliar fertilizer and seedling fertilizer, dilute to 5%.

    Spurge (Euphorbia lathyris). Hardy perennial.
    Active ingredient. Euphorbone.
    Action. Repels moles and voles, but must be prepared and sprayed to be effective. Having the plant on your property does not suffice.
    Preparation. In fermented extract, harvest the stems and leaves; the terminals have the most active ingredient, from April to October. Caution! The milky sap of this plant causes skin irritations! Wear long-cuffed gloves to protect your hands and arms. Use 2 lbs. fresh plant material per 2.5 gals. of water. Spray around cultivated areas.

    Bracken fern and male fern. (Pteridium aquilinum, Dryopteris felix-mas). Perennial plant.
    Action. Insecticide and insectifuge.
    Active ingredients. Gallic and acetic acids; tannin; cyanogenic heterosides; potassium; aldehydes transformed to methaldehydes after fermentation.
    Preparation. In fermented extract, 2 lbs of fresh leaves to 2.5 gal. of water. May be fermented simultaneously with nettle or horsetail. Dilute to 10% before spraying. Effective against some pests of potato and grape, very effective against wooly aphid. Note: bracken fern is indigenous in many areas, especially in well-drained acid soils, and is often considered invasive, as it is rhizomatous.

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). Flowering perennial.
    Active ingredients. Over 250 different compounds!
    Action. Insectifuge, insecticide.
    Preparation. In fermented extract, 2 lbs. of fresh plant material per 2.5 gal. of water, dilute to 10% before using. For dried material, use 7 oz.
    In simple infusion, use 4 oz. of fresh plant material in 1 qt. of water, or 2/3 oz. of dried plant material per quart.
    Note: If you live in a cool climate, your lavender will be less potent than that grown in a hot climate. Double the quantities or use dried plant material from a southern source.

    English Ivy (Hedera helix). Perennial vine.
    Active ingredient. Heteroside which is liberated during fermentation.
    Action. Insectifuge and insecticide against white fly, spider mites, and aphids.
    Preparation. In fermented extract, use 2 lbs. chopped leaves in 2.5 gal. of water. In observing fermentation, don't confuse the foam caused by the saponins in the leaves with the gas bubbles of fermentation. Dilute to 5% before spraying. Beekeepers in the 18th century rubbed their hands with ivy to protect themselves from bee stings. Caution! The extract is toxic and must be kept out of the reach of children. Also, many people are allergic to the sap of ivy and/or to the fine hairs on the reverse of the leaves. Wear gloves to protect yourself.

    Lemon balm. (Melissa officinalis). Perennial aromatic culinary and medicinal herb.
    Active ingredient. Many aromatic compounds.
    Action. Insectifuge against aphids, mosquitos, white fly, and ants.
    Preparation. In infusion, 2 oz. of fresh plant in 1 qt. of water. Allow to cool, filter, and spray without diluting. Note: Do not use on seedling beds as it can prevent germination of seedlings.

    Peppermint. (Mentha piperita) Perennial aromatic culinary and medicinal herb.
    Active ingredients. Many aromatic compounds.
    Action. Insectifuge and insecticide against aphids and spider mites.
    Preparation. In infusion, 4 oz. of fresh plant in 1 qt. of water. Allow to cool, filter, and spray undiluted.
    In fermented extract, 2 lbs. of fresh plant to 2.5 gal. of water. Ferments extremely fast. Dilute to 10% before using. Note: Impedes germination so don't use on seedling beds.

    Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica). Perennial weed.
    Active ingredients. A cocktail of ingredients still poorly analyzed but including formic acid, as well as iron, nitrogen, and many trace minerals. Acts as an immunostimulant for plants.
    Action. Strongly stimulant to both microbial and plant growth, thus a compost activator as well as fertiliser. Insectifuge and sometimes insecticide against aphids, mites, and other pests.
    Preparation. Use of the whole plant before flowering. Studies have shown that including the roots adds a fungicidal action to the extract. In fermented extract (the famous purin d'ortie), 2 lbs. of fresh plant in 2.5 gal. of water, fermented for a few days only. Dilute to 20% before using as soil drench or foliar feed. Use full strength as a natural herbicide (it kills with 'fertilizer burn' because it is so rich). Soak bareroot plants for 30 minutes in the pure extract or for 12 hours in a 20% dilution before planting to stimulate rapid establishment and vigor.

    The nettle reigns supreme among plants for fermentation in France. The fermented extract is sold commercially in garden centers, and clubs and associations of nettle fanatics exist throughout France. Needless to say perhaps, but wear gloves when handling nettles. It's not for nothing they're called 'stinging.'

    Horsetail. (Equisetum arvense). Perennial plant and medicinal herb.
    Active ingredients. Diverse alkaloids, nicotinic acid, silica.
    Action. Insectifuge, preventive fungicide, plant tonic and growth stimulant.
    Preparation. In decoction, boil 1 lb. of fresh plant with 5 qts. of water for 1 hour, allow to infuse 12 hours, filter and dilute to 20%.
    In fermented extract, 1/2 lb. of dried plant in 2.5 gal. of water. Dilute to 5% before using.
    Horsetail, along with nettle and fern, form the Big Three among medicinal plants for plants, according to the French. I remember my Swiss grandmother gathering horsetail and drying it in pillowcases for use in astringent poultices.

    Pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium). Perennial.
    Active ingredient. Pyrethrins.
    Action. Insecticide against aphids, cabbage fly, whitefly, carrot fly, and others. Does not hurt bees.
    Preparation. Harvest the flowers when open, and dry them. In infusion, use 1 oz. in 2 qts. of water. Filter when cool and spray undiluted. In fermented extract, use 3 oz. in 2.5 gal. of water. Dilute to 20%. Spray after sundown or in very early morning.

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana)
    Perennial culinary herb.
    Active ingredients. Sulfuric heteroside, glucosinolate.
    Action. Fungicide against blackspot on cherries.
    Preparation. In infusion, 12 oz. of fresh plant material (leaves and roots chopped) in 2 1/2 gal. of water. Filter when cool and spray undiluted. In fermented extract, 4 oz. of chopped root in 2.5 gal. of water. Use full strength on seedlings for damping off.

    Rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum).
    Perennial potager plant.
    Active ingredients. Oxalic acid as salt of calcium.
    Action. Insectifuge against aphids, caterpillars, and other larvae. Repulsive to herbivores.
    Preparation. In cold maceration, use 1 lb. of chopped leaves in 3 quarts of water; allow to soak 24 hours before filtering. Use full strength. This is a great way to use rhubarb leaves as you eat the stalks.

    Rue (Ruta graveolens). Perennial herb.
    Active ingredients. Tannins, heterosides, malic acid, glucosides, and others.
    Action. Insecticide and repulsive.
    Preparation. Harvest fresh leaves and stems before flowering. In fermented extract, 2 lbs. of fresh plant material in 2.5 gal. of water fermented for 10 days. Dilute to 20%. Repels mice, chipmunks, and other chewers. Spray against aphids.

    Dockweed (Rumex obtusifolius). Perennial weed.
    Active ingredients. Have not been studied.
    Action. Fungicide against canker on apples and pears.
    Preparation. In infusion, 2 lbs. fresh leaves in 5 qts. boiling water. Filter when cool, spray full strength on cankers. Treat young trees preventatively. Spring is best time.

    Soapwort (Saponaria officinalis). Flowering perennial.
    Active ingredients. Saponins.
    Action. Insecticide, insectifuge.
    Preparation. In infusion, 4 oz. fresh material in 1 qt. boiling water. Filter when cool and spray undiluted. In fermented extract, 2 lbs. fresh plant material in 2.5 gal. of water. Dilute to 10% before using.

    Sage. (Salvia officinalis). Perennial herb.
    Active ingredients. Monoterpenones, including thujone, camphor, and others, aldehydes, coumarin.
    Action. Insectifuge, fungicide.
    Preparation. In infusion for insectifuge, 4 oz. of fresh plant material in 1 qt. boiling water. Filter when cool and use full strength. In fermented extract, 2 lbs. of fresh leaves and terminals in 2.5 gal. of water, diluted to 10%, against mildew on potatoes.

    Common Elderberry (Sambucus nigra). Large shrub to small tree.
    Active ingredients. Sambucine.Action. Powerful repellant; fungicide.
    Preparation. In decoction, 2 lbs. of leaves soaked for 24 hours in 2.5 gal. of water, then boiled for 30 minutes. Spray undiluted against aphids, beetles, caterpillars. In fermented extract, use 2 lbs. fresh leaves in 2.5 gal. of water. Use undiluted against shelf fungus infections on trees.

    Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare). Perennial plant (invasive in sandy soils).
    Active ingredients. Not studied.
    Action. Insectifuge, insecticide, fungicide against rust and mildew.
    Preparation. In fermented extract, 2 lbs. of fresh plant material in 2.5 gal. of water. Use nondiluted against cabbage fly. In infusion, 1 oz. of flowers in 1 qt. of boiling water. Filter when cool and spray undiluted against aphids, mildew, and rust. Caution: don't throw residues on compost as tansy inhibits its breakdown.

    This season, why not experiment with this new (old) dimension of organic treatments? It's not only we humans who stand to benefit from medicinal herbs. The power of plants can come to the rescue of fellow plants as well!

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  6. #6 Sc00byD00bie, Sep 8, 2016
    Last edited: Jun 5, 2019
    The Effect of Light Spectrum on the Morphology and Cannabinoid Content of Cannabis sativa L.

    Phenotypic plasticity influences the success of clonal propagation in industrial pharmaceutical Cannabis sativa
    An Update on Plant Photobiology and Implications for Cannabis Production
    Absorbance spectra of plant photosynthetic pigments
    Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) and Standard Units for Plant Lighting

    the measure of that relates the intensity and rate of radiant light energy per surface area emitted by a light source from within the action spectrum of plants.
    Photomorphogenesis, Plant Photoreceptors, and Secondary Plant Metabolites
    Light wavelength and intensity are used to quantify light in plant lighting experiments, and it is now widely accepted that both influence photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis
    In contrast to photosynthesis that is associated with growth from direct light energy, photomorphogenesis is defined as the effect of light on plant development. Several plant responses such as germination and flowering result from the mere presence of light and are not influenced greatly by its intensity (Hall et al., 2014; Kołodziejek and Patykowski, 2015). Therefore, the outcome of a plant’s response under any light spectrum results from the interactive effects between photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis.
    Photomorphogenic Responses and Photoreceptors
    Photomorphogenesis is the light-mediated development of plants regulated by five different photoreceptors (Figure 2; Folta and Carvalho, 2015; Pocock, 2015). They mediate and modulate dozens of structural plant developments such as height, leaf size, and flowering. These changes to plant architecture affect long-term plant development and subsequent photosynthetic surfaces.

    Absorbance spectra of photoreceptors.

    Red (~625–700 nm) and Far-Red (> 700 nm) Light
    Red light impacts photomorphogenesis, leaf nutrient content, and stem growth. It is essential for chlorophyll synthesis.
    These processes are under the influence of phytochrome control.

    A low R:FR ratio during a long photoperiod (18 h light, 6 h dark/vegetative stage) is beneficial to the development of mature cuttings, contradicting popular belief in the cannabis industry.

    The effect of red light on plant physiology has been reported to induced an increase in rooting percentage and root numbers. Plantlets grown in red light produce a higher number of roots and new leaves. Lower leaf nitrogen content was found in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv. Megaton) grown under red light treatment. In addition, photosynthetic rate reductions observed for plants grown under red light are reportedly due to stomata being controlled more by blue light than by red light (Sharkey and Raschke, 1981; Zeiger, 1984; Bukhov et al., 1996).

    Red light further regulates flowering quality, quantity, and flowering duration (Bula et al., 1991; Tennessen et al., 1994). According to Guo et al. (1998) and Thomas and Vince-Prue (1996), inhibition of flowering with red light is effected by red light receptors including phytochromes (Kelly and Lagarias, 1985). The number of visible flower buds in marigold plants was approximately five times higher when grown with fluorescent light supplemented with red LEDs.

    Plants grown under canopy shade conditions or in the proximity of other plants show a range of responses to changes in R:FR ratios of ambient light. This response, known as shade avoidance or the near neighbor detection response, is characterized by an acceleration of flowering time (i.e., becoming visible within the expanded floral bud) and rapid elongation of stems and leaves (Halliday et al., 1994; Smith, 1994). Kasperbauer (1988) determined that FR light reflected from neighboring seedlings increased the R:FR ratio plants received, inducing a density-dependent increase in stem length, chloroplast content, chlorophyll a/b ratio, and CO2 fixation rate, along with decreased leaf thickness. In recent years, the effect of FR light (or a low R:FR ratio) has been intensively investigated in different plant species and development stages (Li and Kubota, 2009; Finlayson et al., 2010; Mickens et al., 2018; Park and Runkle, 2018). Supplemental FR treatments increased dry mass for many greenhouse crops during vegetative development (Hogewoning et al., 2012; Lee et al., 2016; Mickens et al., 2018; Park and Runkle, 2018), but conflicting results on leaf area were reported. Hogewoning et al. (2012) reported no significant difference in leaf area for tomato (L. esculentum “Mecano”) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus “Venice”), whereas an increase in leaf area was observed for lettuce, petunia (Petunia × hybrida), geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum), and coleus (Solenostemon scutellariodes) (Lee et al., 2016; Mickens et al., 2018; Park and Runkle, 2018).

    Blue (~450–520 nm) and UV (< 400 nm) Light
    Blue and UV-A light triggers cryptochrome (320500 nm) and phototropin (phot1 and pho2; 320–500 nm) function (Jones, 2018). These two photoreceptors regulate various physiological and developmental processes including chloroplast relocation, germination, elongation, and stomatal opening, which impacts water transpiration and CO2 exchange (Cosgrove, 1981; Schwartz and Zeiger, 1984). Blue light mediates chlorophyll and chloroplast development, enzyme synthesis, and plant density, and regulates responses to biotic environmental stresses (Goins et al., 1997; Schuerger et al., 1997). Walters and Horton (1995) reported that blue light deficiency can impact the light saturation rate of photosynthesis and can change the Chl a/b ratio. Blue light causes thickness of the epidermis and palisade mesophyll cells. Lee et al. (2014) concluded that shorter blue wavelengths (<445 nm) promote stem growth, plant height, and anthocyanin synthesis in green perilla (Perilla frutescens var. japonica Hara cv. Soim) plants. Cannabis plants grown under blue light with a short photoperiod (12 h light:12 h dark/flowering stage) improved cannabinoid content (Magagnini et al., 2018). This same study suggested that there is a synergy between UV-A and blue wavelengths that induces cannabigerol accumulation in cannabis flowers.

    Blue light activates Zeitlupe (ZTL) family function, a group of proteins that plays a role in circadian clock regulation, wherein their light-dependent function allows modulation of internal timing signals (Kim et al., 2007). Accordingly, optimal lighting regimes for cannabis growth and production should take advantage of this temporal regulation initiated by the circadian clock and light-sensitive ZTL protein function.

    Wavelengths of light that are shorter than the PAR spectrum [e.g., violet light and UV (<400 nm) radiation] have limited photosynthesis; however, discrete photomorphogenic effects are observed when UV-B (290320 nm) sensing systems are triggered (Frohnmeyer and Staiger, 2003; Folta and Carvalho, 2015). UV-B radiation is perceived via the UV-B photoreceptor UV resistance locus 8 (UVR8). Although UV-B represents a threat to plant integrity in large quantities, smaller quantities of UV-B have important benefits such as promoting pest resistance, increasing flavonoid accumulation, improving photosynthetic efficiency, and serving as an indicator of direct sunlight and sunflecks (Ballaré et al., 2012; Wargent and Jordan, 2013; Zoratti et al., 2014; Moriconi et al., 2018). Further to this, some UV-B responses can also be modulated by a UVR8-independent signal and UV-A radiation, since plants’ responses to UV-B light are regulated by both UVR8-dependent and -independent pathways (Morales et al., 2013; Li et al., 2015; Jenkins, 2017). UV-B light reportedly elicits THC accumulation in both leaves and buds (Pate, 1983; Lydon et al., 1987; Potter and Duncombe, 2012).

    Green (~520–560 nm) Light
    Green light is often considered unavailable for plant growth since plant photosynthetic pigments have limited absorbance for these wavelengths. However, there is evidence that green light is available for active plant growth, yet this phenomenon is wavelength- and intensity-dependent (Kim et al., 2004a; Kim et al., 2005; Johkan et al., 2012). Green light influences plant morphology, including leaf growth, stomatal conductance, and early stem elongation (Folta, 2004; Kim et al., 2004a,b). Kim et al. (2004) first examined the effect of green light on plant growth and photomorphogenesis, later concluding that it impacted plant growth at low light intensity (~150 μmol·m−2·sec−1) (Kim et al., 2005). A low percentage (≤ 24%) of green light enhanced plant growth, whereas plant growth was inhibited under a higher percentage of green light (Kim et al., 2004a, 2005; Folta and Maruhnich, 2007; Lee et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2017). Furthermore, green light exhibits better leaf tissue penetration ability (Brodersen and Vogelmann, 2010), resulting in better plant canopy penetration than either red or blue light (Klein, 1992). The issue with green light is that it exerts an antagonistic effect on other blue light-induced responses, including stomatal closure (Frechilla et al., 2000) or anthocyanin accumulation (Zhang and Folta, 2012). In cannabis plants, THC levels are negatively affected by the presence of green light (Mahlberg and Hemphill, 1983; Magagnini et al., 2018).
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  7. This is a beautiful compilation of info for any kinda crop 2016-09-05 21.45.18.jpg I have been reading up on a lot of cool techniques and combinations of flowers and veggies supporting one another. Did you know hydrangea plants will tell you the pH of the soil by the color they are? For true blue flowers, the hydrangeas need to be grown in acidic soil (pH 5.5 and lower). For pink flowers, theplants need neutral to alkaline soils (pH 6.5 and higher). They are great indication of the soils ph without the fancy tools. I don't usually worry about ph in soil myself but I thought that was neat info... awesome info btw scoob I'm subbed up
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  8. Great idea, Scoob
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  9. #10 Jay_R_1787, Sep 8, 2016
    Last edited: Mar 6, 2018
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  10. Nice job Sc00byD00bie :gc_rocks:
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  11. Nice thread @Sc00byD00bie ! Thanks for taking the time to spread the love here in the GCO forum!
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  12. Sticky worthy. Nice compilation!
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  13. #14 Sc00byD00bie, Sep 9, 2016
    Last edited: Mar 18, 2017
    Added a soil calculator spreadsheet made by @A guy under the "Other" section , pretty cool stuff, thanks A guy!

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  14. Scooby, really nice job buddy. Every so often a really excellent thread comes along and this is one of them. I've no doubt that many will get a lot of use out of this.

    GCO FTW!

    Nice job!

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  15. I have a bunch of quotes on google drive of people here but it's not a link. I just copied what they said and pasted it. I can copy paste them and send them to you.
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  16. Great Job Scooby you deserve a scooby snack
    Scooby dooby doo
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  17. great just post it here and i will add it to the OP
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  18. Here is the full playlist for the Soil Food Web lecture i shared a long time ago and seemed like anyone i shared it with has also shared it with a lot of people who've found it just as helpful as i have. a couple months after sharing, the videos were removed for copyright infringements because it costs a shit ton to go to her lectures. so today i saw the video was up and running so i dug around and the lecture has been posted again by someone else but it is now unlisted. so this video may be removed quickly again so take advantage of the fact its free right now.

    there are several videos and the playlist of video lectures is around 2 hours long. i ended up watching this for about a week straight until i felt confident i had a good understanding. really has changed my live about how i view everything and was a pivotal moment for me.

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  19. MountainOrganics said:
    I've continued with my post harvest ritual at the beginning of each cycle which includes ensuring a solid mulch layer consisting mainly of all the leaves and stems from harvest, a sprinkling of neem (Karanja meal actually), kelp and MBP and a sprinkling of some sort of cover crop type seed which is usually fenugreek or Crimson clover (I just did a cycle with chia and lo and behold some flowered and produced seed!) - about 1/4 cup of each typically. The MBP is a weekly/biweekly addition anyways and the neem/kelp is just at the start of the cycle and likely once more by early flower. You could say neem/kelp is topdressed about every 8 weeks.

    Two questions popped into my head from this post:

    As far as mulch, do you guys feel pot stems and leaves deliver the most benefits?

    The cover crop? Why? Also, is it replanted as soon as you chop so it has time to grow during veg? I wouldnt think it would be able to survive the shade of the canopy
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