Cannabis Addiction and the Brain: a Review

Discussion in 'Medical Marijuana News' started by vostok, Jul 2, 2018.

  1. With a recent increase in the rates of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and a decrease in the perceived risk of cannabis use, it is imperative to assess the addictive potential of cannabis. Here we evaluate cannabis use through the neurobiological model of addiction proposed by Koob and Volkow. The model proposes that repeated substance abuse drives neurobiological changes in the brain that can be separated into three distinct stages, each of which perpetuates the cycle of addiction. Here we review previous research on the acute and long-term effects of cannabis use on the brain and behavior, and find that the three-stage framework of addiction applies to CUD in a manner similar to other drugs of abuse, albeit with some slight differences. These findings highlight the urgent need to conduct research that elucidates specific neurobiological changes associated with CUD in humans.

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    more: Cannabis Addiction and the Brain: a Review
     
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  2. Although I appreciate the review, I question the validity of Cannabis Use Disorder, as I do many psychiatric illnesses where large pharmaceutical companies have made ganzillion$ off the well being of the population.
    The disorder is only five years old being assigned to the
    DSM, in its fifth edition, the DSM-5, published on May 18, 2013
    .

    I know, for example, that continued use of Methylphenidate (Ritalin) leads to brain shrinkage. I don't think that's the case with cannabis.

    As well, there are testimonials that directly conflict with findings such as the Zhang 2009 paper that claims HU210 induces brain cell regeneration, not to mention the multitude of Dr. Mechoulam's findings on neural benefits from cannabis.

    I don't doubt there is some problems associated with cannabis though, just like 'over video gaming' I see people playing >100 hours on steam, those people have problems, but to name it a video game addiction in the DSM V is not going to fix it. Those people have problems because they have not chosen the right direction and/or are facing circumstantial stress that they don't know how to mitigate.

    Nevertheless, I'll still read the paper, but just looking up the term CUD resulted in a cringe feeling for me. I am also very skeptical when reading any cannabis articles nowadays, peer-reviewed or not. I think that up to a third of modern science is either falsified or misrepresented.
     
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  3. for me its CUD=cringe ..lol

    I think as tokers we gotta know these naysayers ain't gonna go away
     
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  4. oh my!
    upload_2018-7-2_12-56-28.png

    but... Rimonabant is not a good thing.
    Doesn't CBD also antagonize those same receptors?

    oh, ok
    upload_2018-7-2_12-58-33.png

    now this?
    upload_2018-7-2_13-1-11.png
    kk, offer THC for cure !

    but this?
    upload_2018-7-2_13-1-54.png
    naltrexone destroys your liver.

    still reading... just took a lil break heh
     
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  5. Pot blues anyone?
    "The changes resulting from opponent-processes responses drive characteristic symptoms of a withdrawal symptom such as increased anxiety-like responses, chronic irritability, malaise, and dysphoria during acute and protracted abstinence from a drug of abuse (Koob and Volkow 2016)."
    haha!

    now this concerns me:
    Acute THC administration elicits striatal DA release in animals (Ng Cheong Ton et al. 1988) and humans (Stokes et al. 2010; Bossong et al. 2015; Bloomfield et al. 2016). However, another study found no evidence for THC-induced DA release (Barkus et al. 2011);
    lol

    this may be because THC induces quantitatively less DA release than psychostimulants such as methylphenidate or amphetamine (Volkow et al. 1999a). Nonetheless, these findings suggest that THC increases DA release similar to other drugs of abuse.
    so keep prescribing ritalin :p

    Ugh
    Chronic cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of developing substance use disorders (SUD);
    and for that matter
    Cannabis is the most commonly used substance of abuse in the United States

    what if its 'not a substance of abuse' and instead considered to be like chocolate? or coffee? And beyond that, I don't drink. I don't use hard drugs. I game ~ 10 hours a week. I work ~ 60 hours a weeks.

    Ok
    Cuttler et al. (2017) found that healthy controls had an increase in cortisol levels under a stress-provoking condition compared to baseline but did not find the same increase in active cannabis users.
    is good, [expect stress when not smoking].

    The CB1 receptor downregulation is reversible. In the hypothalmus too? idk, and neither do they.

    Review is full of these kind of statements:
    Nonetheless, these findings need to be corroborated in rodents since there is conflicting evidence for whether self-administration in rodent models provides robust evidence of THC as a behavioral reinforcer (Tanda and Goldberg 2003; Maldonado et al. 2011; Panlilio et al. 2015; Melis et al. 2017).

    as well as 'may cause', 'maybe' 'could' ...
    ... there be people inside Mars!?

    Now the neuroimaging stuff I'm not reading. They can't even diagnose concussions properly yet with MRI.
    You know what is related to brain damage? Its brain trauma. A minor ding to the head can lead to shearing of the membrane and neurons, encephalopathy, blood in the brain. Age will shrink our brains. Alcohol shrinks your brain. Yet cannabinoids protect you from strokes and other neuropathies. In fact, the neural networks and CB receptors would be undiscovered if not for cannabis, and research into cannabis, much of the early stuff by Dr. Mechoulam who is pretty well advocating his own THC analog.

    fuck this paper, its made me want to go binge-intoxicate myself :D

    thanks for the paper vostok
     
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  6. /GET (binge-intoxicated)

    /STAY (binge-intoxicated)

    *thumping techno music plays*
     
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  7. I use cannabis and it works almost every time. No Cannabis Use Disorder here!
     
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  8. Well, I was given opioids by the fistful by the VA for over 20 years. Yeah, I’m not worried about this.


    Sent from my iPhone using Grasscity Forum
     
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  9. Incredible telling infographic, thanks dude :love-mj:
     
  10. I don't care.

    If my system ever runs out of weed, it means I'm incapacitated or dead.

    The reason I use cannabis is to alter my consciousness. It's just too bad the shit wears off so quick.
     
  11. the only real disorder =

    Severe Endocannabinoid Deficiencies ( SED )
     

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